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Reference : HN 16

Author(s) : Ndukwu, B.C. and N.B.Ben-Nwadibia
Title : Ethnomedicinal aspects of plants used as spices and condiments in the Niger delta area of Nigeria Leaflets Journal on WWW : http://www.siu.edu/~ebl/leaflets/niger.htm
Reference HN 16 has information about 32 plants :
Aframomum melegueta (Roscoe) K.Schum.
Official name : Aframomum melegueta (Roscoe) K.Schum.
Family : Zingiberaceae
Symptoms : H(008), H(046), H(048), H(068), H(091), H(096), H(097y), H(143), H(155)
Recipes : H(048), H(068), H(091), the fruits and seeds of Aframomum melegueta are commonly used as an ingredient of many local herbal preparations., they are usually used as stimulants, , carminatives and in vermifuge especially among the Ijaws
H(068), the powdered rhizome with table salt is specially given as vermifuge for round worms
H(008) cholera, the decoction of the leaves of Aframomum melegueta together with the leaves of Momordica charantia and Sorghum arundinaceum cereal in local dry gin (alcohol) is recommended to be taken one dose daily against cholera
H(046), H(143), the decoction of the leaves is used for small pox and chicken pox.
H(096), H(097y), the decoction of the leaves of Aframomum melegueta is mixed with leaves of lime, lemon grass and mango (Mangifera indica ) it is used as remedy for catarrh while the steam from the decoction is inhaled for congested chest
H(155), the ground formulation from the fruits of Piper guineense, Dioscorea bulbifera, Aframomum melegueta and Capsicum frutescens is mixed with aqueous extract of Citrus aurantifolia (lime) against tonsillitis
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : ehin-edo ehie ado (Bini); oji (Igbo - Ose); erhie (Urhobo); oburo; ata; ata-ire (Yoruba) ; grains of paradise, guinea grains; alligator pepper (English)
Allium cepa L.
Official name : Allium cepa L.
Family : Alliaceae
Symptoms : H(013), H(014), H(020x), H(037), H(045), H(053), H(060), H(078), H(082), H(091), H(095), H(094), H(152), H(157), H(175), H(186)
Recipes : H(091), H(186), onion bulb serves as a stimulant and expectorant
H(014), H(020x), H(045), Generally antimicrobial, it is usually crushed and its juice used against skin infections and insect bites
H(013) , H(053), H(094), H(175) + H(078), the roasted onion or its compress is used as poultice for tumors, ulcers, earaches and piles
H(037), H(082), H(152), H(157), juice of onion is mixed with honey in the treatment of asthma, cough, cold, convulsion and hypotension
H(048), H(060), fresh onion leaves is mostly used to eat roasted meat “suya” as a carminative and to reduce cholesterol level.
H(095), onion bulb is mostly used for flavouring and garnishing soup and foods
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : alubarha (Bini); oyim mbakara (Efik/Ibibio ) ; yabasi (Igbo) ; alubosa (Yoruba) ; red onion (English)
Allium sativum L.
Official name : Allium sativum L.
Family : Alliaceae
Symptoms : H(001), H(013), H(014), H(018), H(036), H(037), H(048), H(051), H(082), H(108), H(113), H(135), H(151)
Recipes : H(037), H(082), crushed garlic (soup) is used against microbial infection, asthma cough and respiratory problems.
H(018), the juice of the bulb is given as eardrops against earaches.
H(051), H(108), as a seasoning and flavouring agent, garlic is principally taken against fevers and chills.
H(108), a cold infusion serves as a body wash for infants as protection against chills.
H(001), H(036), H(113), H(151), the bulb also serves as effective remedy for hypertension, muscular pain, giddiness and sore eyes.
H(048), H(135), It is digestive and carminative and removes pains of the bowels.
H(013) ,H(014), when powdered with natron it is applied as a dressing on ulcers and skin diseases
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : ayuu (Igbo) ; ayo (Yoruba) ; garlic (English)
Capsicum annuum L.
Official name : Capsicum annuum L.
Family : Solanaceae
Synonyms : Capsicum frutescens L.
Symptoms : H(001), H(004), H(008), H(013), H(014), H(018), H(036), H(037), H(048), H(051), H(082), H(091), H(100), H(108), H(113), H(135), H(151), H(155), H(164), H(191)
Recipes : H(091), H(191), the fruits and seeds of pepper are highly pungent. They are used as stimulants and enhancing the circulation of blood especially in cold conditions.
H(048), H(164), they also serve as carminatives and rubefacients.
H(008), H(051), preparations of the fruits are taken against fever and dysentery.
H(004), powdered chilies are mixed with palm oil in treating cuts, wounds and dog bites.
H(051) for the treatment of paludism, the unripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens together with the roots of Securidaca longipedunculata (violet tree), whole plant of Allium ascalonicum seeds of Aniphyllea species; old leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw), roots of Citrullus vulgaris (cucumber), roots of Elais guineensis (oil palm) are powdered, then mixed with hot pap of Zea mays and taken orally for 3-4 days.
H(100), for the treatment of gonorrhoea, a mixture of hot pap and powdered mixture of unripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens, whole plant of Allium ascalonicum, leaves of Glyphaea lateriflora and tuber of Manihot esculenta are taken in the mornings for at least seven days
H(155), the ground formulation from the fruits of Piper guineense, Dioscorea bulbifera, Aframomum melegueta and Capsicum frutescens is mixed with aqueous extract of Citrus aurantifolia (lime) against tonsillitis
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : isie; ekie, asie (Bini) ; ntokon; aman-ntuen; ntueen (Efik/Ibibio) ; ose; ose-oyibo; ose etore; ose nukwu; ose nwamkpi; ose mkpe (Igbo); ata-jije; ata-eiye; ata sisebe (Yoruba); cayenne; african pepper; guinea pepper; bir pepper; chilies (English)
Capsicum annuum L.
Official name : Capsicum annuum L.
Family : Solanaceae
Synonyms : Capsicum frutescens L.
Symptoms : H(004), H(008), H(048), H(091), H(164), H(191)
Recipes : H(091), H(191), the fruits and seeds of pepper are highly pungent. They are used as stimulants and enhancing the circulation of blood especially in cold conditions.
H(048), H(164), they also serve as carminatives and rubefacients.
H(008), H(051), preparations of the fruits are taken against fever and dysentery.
H(004), powdered chilies are mixed with palm oil in treating cuts, wounds and dog bites.
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : isie; ekie, asie (Bini) ; ntokon; aman-ntuen; ntueen (Efik/Ibibio) ; ose; ose-oyibo; ose etore; ose nukwu; ose nwamkpi; ose mkpe (Igbo); ata-jije; ata-eiye; ata sisebe (Yoruba); cayenne; african pepper; guinea pepper; bir pepper; chilies (English):
Carica papaya L.
Official name : Carica papaya L.
Family : Caricaceae
Symptoms : H(051)
Recipes : H(051) for the treatment of paludism, the unripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens together with the roots of Securidaca longipedunculata (violet tree), whole plant of Allium ascalonicum seeds of Aniphyllea species; old leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw), roots of Citrullus vulgaris (cucumber), roots of Elais guineensis (oil palm) are powdered, then mixed with hot pap of Zea mays and taken orally for 3-4 days.
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Chenopodium ambrosioides L.
Official name : Chenopodium ambrosioides L.
Family : Chenopodiaceae
Synonyms : Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants
Symptoms : H(113)
Recipes : H(113), the paste of the pods of Tetrapleura tetraptera mixed with the roots of Citrus lemon, Olax subscorpiodes, Chenopodium ambrosioides and the bulb of Allium ascalonicum in treatment of rheumatism
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumara & Makai
Official name : Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumara & Makai
Family : Cucurbitaceae
Synonyms : Citrullus vulgaris Eckl. & Zeyh. , Colocynthis citrullus (L.) Kuntze
Symptoms : H(051)
Recipes : H(051) for the treatment of paludism, the unripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens together with the roots of Securidaca longipedunculata (violet tree), whole plant of Allium ascalonicum seeds of Aniphyllea species; old leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw), roots of Citrullus vulgaris (cucumber), roots of Elais guineensis (oil palm) are powdered, then mixed with hot pap of Zea mays and taken orally for 3-4 days
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Official name : Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Family : Rutaceae
Symptoms : H(155)
Recipes : H(155), the ground formulation from the fruits of Piper guineense, Dioscorea bulbifera, Aframomum melegueta and Capsicum frutescens is mixed with aqueous extract of Citrus aurantifolia (lime) against tonsillitis
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Official name : Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Family : Rutaceae
Synonyms : Citrus limonum Risso
Symptoms : H(113)
Recipes : H(113), the paste of the pods of Tetrapleura tetraptera mixed with the roots of Citrus lemon, Olax subscorpiodes, Chenopodium ambrosioides and the bulb of Allium ascalonicum in treatment of rheumatism
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Official name : Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Family : Rutaceae
Synonyms : Citrus limonum Risso
Symptoms : H(113)
Recipes : The paste of the pods of Tetrapleura tetraptera mixed with the roots of Citrus lemon, Olax subscorpiodes, Chenopodium ambrosioides and the bulb of Allium ascalonicum in treatment of H(113) rheumatism.
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Official name : Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Family : Dioscoreaceae
Symptoms : H(155)
Recipes : H(155), the ground formulation from the fruits of Piper guineense, Dioscorea bulbifera, Aframomum melegueta and Capsicum frutescens is mixed with aqueous extract of Citrus aurantifolia (lime) against tonsillitis
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Elaeis guineensis Jacq.
Official name : Elaeis guineensis Jacq.
Family : Palmae
Symptoms : H(051)
Recipes : H(051) for the treatment of paludism, the unripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens together with the roots of Securidaca longipedunculata (violet tree), whole plant of Allium ascalonicum seeds of Aniphyllea species; old leaves of Carica papaya (pawpaw), roots of Citrullus vulgaris (cucumber), roots of Elais guineensis (oil palm) are powdered, then mixed with hot pap of Zea mays and taken orally for 3-4 days
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Jatropha curcas L.
Official name : Jatropha curcas L.
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Symptoms : H(091)
Recipes : H(091) childs, The roots of Ocimum basilicum or O. Canum Sims or O. gratissimum or O. americanum or O. guineense or O. viride together with the leaves of Jatropha curcas and fruit of Xylopia aethiopica is boiled and given to children as a strengthening tonic.
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Mangifera indica L.
Official name : Mangifera indica L.
Family : Anacardiaceae
Symptoms : H(096), H(097y)
Recipes : H(096), H(097y), the decoction of the leaves of Aframomum melegueta is mixed with leaves of lime, lemon grass and mango (Mangifera indica ) it is used as remedy for catarrh while the steam from the decoction is inhaled for congested ches
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Manihot esculenta Crantz
Official name : Manihot esculenta Crantz
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Synonyms : Manihot utilissima Pohl
Symptoms : H(100)
Recipes : H(100), for the treatment of gonorrhoea, a mixture of hot pap and powdered mixture of unripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens, whole plant of Allium ascalonicum, leaves of Glyphaea lateriflora and tuber of Manihot esculenta are taken in the mornings for at least seven days
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Momordica charantia L.
Official name : Momordica charantia L.
Family : Cucurbitaceae
Symptoms : H(008)
Recipes : H(008) cholera, the decoction of the leaves of Aframomum melegueta together with the leaves of Momordica charantia and Sorghum arundinaceum cereal in local dry gin (alcohol) is recommended to be taken one dose daily against cholera
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Ocimum basilicum L.
Official name : Ocimum basilicum L.
Family : Lamiaceae
Symptoms : H(008), H(014), H(018), H(020), H(037), H(038), H(048), H(053), H(091), H(095), H(100), H(104), H(108), H(124), H(125), H(157)
Recipes : The plant is an anticonvulsant H(157), diaphoretic H(125) and carminative H(048). It cures coughH(037), catarrh, cold H(108), fever H(051), chest painsH(037) and diarrhea H(008), others are earache H(053), ringwormH(014), nasal bleeding H(124), anti-spasmolytic and relief of pains of the colon H(008) + H(104)
H(051), leaves are chopped up and eaten as a febrifuge.
H(037), powdered form of the leaves is taken internally for catarrh.
H(014), a paste of the leaves is applied topically against ringworm and skin diseases.
H(008), H(038), H(100), seed infusion is prepared to treat gonorrhea , nephritic and urinary infections, diarrhea and chronic dysentery
The warm extract of the leaves is used in instillations for otitis media H(053), sinusitis H(108) and in fumigations for cough H(037) and headache H(018)
H(091) childs, The roots of Ocimum basilicum or O. Canum Sims or O. gratissimum or O. americanum or O. guineense or O. viride together with the leaves of Jatropha curcas and fruit of Xylopia aethiopica is boiled and given to children as a strengthening tonic.
The leaves of Ocimum species are usually very aromatic. H(095), These plants are thus used for seasoning and flavouring sauces, salads and soups.
H(020), the scent of the plant is also used to protect against snake
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : esewon (Edo) ; nchanwu ( Igbo) ; ufuo-yibo (Urhobo) ; efinruin-wewe, efinrin-ajase, efirinpo, efirin-gidi and efiri-ajija (Yoruba), ): sweet basil; hairy basil; tea bush; scent eaf (English)
Ocimum canum Sims
Official name : Ocimum canum Sims
Family : Lamiaceae
Symptoms : H(008), H(008) + H(104), H(014), H(020), H(037), H(038), H(048), H(091), H(051), H(053), H(091), H(095), H(100), H(108), H(124), H(125), H(157)
Recipes : The plant is an anticonvulsant H(157), diaphoretic H(125) and carminative H(048). It cures coughH(037), catarrh, cold H(108), fever H(051), chest painsH(037) and diarrhea H(008), others are earache H(053), ringwormH(014), nasal bleeding H(124), anti-spasmolytic and relief of pains of the colon H(008) + H(104)
H(051), leaves are chopped up and eaten as a febrifuge.
Powdered form of the leaves is taken internally for catarrh.
A paste of the leaves is applied topically against ringworm H(014) and skin diseases.
Seed infusion is prepared to treat gonorrhea H(100), nephritic and urinary infections H(038), diarrhea and chronic dysentery H(008)
The warm extract of the leaves is used in instillations for otitis media H(053), sinusitis H(108) and in fumigations for cough H(037) and headache H(018)
H(091) childs, The roots of Ocimum basilicum or O. Canum Sims or O. gratissimum or O. americanum or O. guineense or O. viride together with the leaves of Jatropha curcas and fruit of Xylopia aethiopica is boiled and given to children as a strengthening tonic..
The leaves of these species are usually very aromatic. H(095), These plants are thus used for seasoning and flavouring sauces, salads and soups.
H(020), the scent of the plant is also used to protect against snakes
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : esewon (Edo) ; nchanwu ( Igbo) ; ufuo-yibo (Urhobo) ; efinruin-wewe, efinrin-ajase, efirinpo, efirin-gidi and efiri-ajija (Yoruba), ): sweet basil; hairy basil; tea bush; scent eaf (English)
Ocimum gratissimum L.
Official name : Ocimum gratissimum L.
Family : Lamiaceae
Symptoms : H(008), H(014), H(018), H(020), H(037), H(038), H(048), H(053), H(091), H(095), H(100), H(104), H(108), H(124), H(125), H(157)
Recipes : The plant is an anticonvulsant H(157), diaphoretic H(125) and carminative H(048). It cures coughH(037), catarrh, cold H(108), fever H(051), chest painsH(037) and diarrhea H(008), others are earache H(053), ringwormH(014), nasal bleeding H(124), anti-spasmolytic and relief of pains of the colon H(008) + H(104)
H(051), leaves are chopped up and eaten as a febrifuge.
Powdered form of the leaves is taken internally for catarrh.
A paste of the leaves is applied topically against ringworm H(014) and skin diseases.
Seed infusion is prepared to treat gonorrhea H(100), nephritic and urinary infections H(038), diarrhea and chronic dysentery H(008)
The warm extract of the leaves is used in instillations for otitis media H(053), sinusitis H(108) and in fumigations for cough H(037) and headache H(018)
H(091) childs, The roots of Ocimum basilicum or O. Canum Sims or O. gratissimum or O. americanum or O. guineense or O. viride together with the leaves of Jatropha curcas and fruit of Xylopia aethiopica is boiled and given to children as a strengthening tonic..
The leaves of these species are usually very aromatic. H(095), These plants are thus used for seasoning and flavouring sauces, salads and soups.
H(020), the scent of the plant is also used to protect against snakes
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria
Vernacular name : esewon (Edo) ; nchanwu ( Igbo) ; ufuo-yibo (Urhobo) ; efinruin-wewe, efinrin-ajase, efirinpo, efirin-gidi and efiri-ajija (Yoruba), ): sweet basil; hairy basil; tea bush; scent eaf (English)