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Reference : HI 09

Author(s) : Idu, M., Umweni, A. A., Odaro, T. and Ojelede L.
Title : Ethnobotanical Plants Used for Oral Healthcare Among the Esan Tribe of Edo State, Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 548-63, 2009. http://www.ethnoleaflets.com/leaflets/iduoralh.htm
Reference HI 09 has information about 32 plants :
Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg.
Official name : Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg.
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Synonyms : Alchornea cordata Benth.
Symptoms : H(103), H(103x)
Recipes : H(103) toothache, H(103x) teeth cleaning, twig, root of Alchornea cordifolia, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : akowo, uwanwe (Esan)
Allophylus africanus P. Beauv.
Official name : Allophylus africanus P. Beauv.
Family : Sapindaceae
Symptoms : H(008), H(103x)
Recipes : H(008), diarrhoea, H(103x) teeth cleaning, twig, root of Allophylus africanus, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : ebe, ukpe (Esan)
Anacardium occidentale L.
Official name : Anacardium occidentale L.
Family : Anacardiaceae
Symptoms : H(103), H(103x)
Recipes : H(103) sore gum, H(103x) teeth cleaning,. twig of Anacardium occidentale, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : ikashu (Esan)
Aulacocalyx jasminiflora f. brevis N. Hallé
Official name : Aulacocalyx jasminiflora f. brevis N. Hallé
Family : Rubiaceae
Symptoms : H(103x)
Recipes : H(103x) teeth cleaning,. twig of Aulococalyx jasminiflora, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : amegben (Esan)
Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
Official name : Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
Family : Meliaceae
Synonyms : Melia azadirachta L.
Symptoms : H(051), H(103x), H(104), H(118)
Recipes : H(051) paludism, H(103x) teeth cleaning, H(104) stomach-ache, H(118) sore throat, twig, stem bark of Azardirachta indica, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : dongoyaro (Esan)
Baphia nitida Lodd.
Official name : Baphia nitida Lodd.
Family : Fabaceae
Symptoms : H(103x)
Recipes : H(103x) teeth cleaning, twig, stem of Baphia nitidia, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : otua (Esan)
Carpolobia lutea G. Don
Official name : Carpolobia lutea G. Don
Family : Polygalaceae
Symptoms : H(103x)
Recipes : H(103x) teeth cleaning, H(104) stomach-ache, twig, stem of Carpolobia lutea, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : aswen (Esan)
Casearia barteri Mast.
Official name : Casearia barteri Mast.
Family : Flacourtiaceae
Symptoms : H(103), H(103x)
Recipes : H(103) sore gum, H(103x) teeth cleaning, twigs, stem bark of Caseari barteri, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : ukpakuzon, akpano-eze (Esan)
Citrus ×aurantium L.
Official name : Citrus ×aurantium L.
Family : Rutaceae
Synonyms : Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck , Citrus paradisi Macfad
Symptoms : H(055), H(103), H(103x)
Recipes : H(055) vomiting, H(103) toothache, H(103x) teeth cleaning, twig, stem of Citrus sinensis, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : anumei (Esan)
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Official name : Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Family : Rutaceae
Symptoms : H(055), H(103), H(103x)
Recipes : H(055) vomiting, H(103) toothache, H(103x) teeth cleaning, twig, stem of Citrus aurantifolia, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : anumei- negwegwe (Esan)
Dennettia tripetala Baker f.
Official name : Dennettia tripetala Baker f.
Family : Annonaceae
Symptoms : H(103), H(103x)
Recipes : H(103) toothache, H(103x) teeth cleaning, twigs of Dennettia tripetala, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : ukpakon okhan, ohure, ako (Esan)
Dialium guineense Willd.
Official name : Dialium guineense Willd.
Family : Fabaceae
Symptoms : H(103), H(103x)
Recipes : H(103) toothache, H(103x) teeth cleaning, twigs, barks of Dialium guineense, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : ohiome (Esan)
Diospyros barteri Hiern
Official name : Diospyros barteri Hiern
Family : Ebenaceae
Symptoms : H(103x)
Recipes : H(103x) teeth cleaning, twigs of Diospyros barteri, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : elugbe, ivin-oha (Esan)
Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam.
Official name : Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam.
Family : Rutaceae
Synonyms : Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepernick & Timler
Symptoms : H(037), H(103x)
Recipes : H(037) cough tuberculosis, H(103x) teeth cleaning, root bark of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : ukhiaghele, ughanghan (Esan)
Garcinia kola Heckel
Official name : Garcinia kola Heckel
Family : Clusiaceae
Symptoms : H(103x)
Recipes : H(103x) teeth cleaning, twigs of Garcinia kola, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : edun (Esan)
Glyphaea brevis (Spreng.) Monach.
Official name : Glyphaea brevis (Spreng.) Monach.
Family : Tiliaceae
Symptoms : H(008), H(051), H(103x)
Recipes : H(008), diarrhoea, H(051) fever, H(103x) teeth cleaning, twig, stem bark of Glypheae brevis, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : not registered
Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-LeComte ex O'Rorke) Baill.
Official name : Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-LeComte ex O'Rorke) Baill.
Family : Irvingiaceae
Symptoms : H(103x)
Recipes : H(103x) teeth cleaning, stem of Irvingia gabonensis, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : ohiele, ogwe (ogbono) (Esan)
Maesobotrya barteri (Baill.) Hutch.
Official name : Maesobotrya barteri (Baill.) Hutch.
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Symptoms : H(091), H(103x)
Recipes : H(091) waist pain, H(103x) teeth cleaning, twig of Maesobotrya barteri, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : orua, oruru (Esan)
Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg
Official name : Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Symptoms : H(103x)
Recipes : H(103x) oral hygiene, H(103x) teeth cleaning., twig of Mallotus oppositifolia, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : ogheghe (Esan)
Microdesmis puberula Hook.f. ex Planch.
Official name : Microdesmis puberula Hook.f. ex Planch.
Family : Pandaceae
Symptoms : H(103), H(103x)
Recipes : H(103) sore gum, H(103x) teeth cleaning, twig of Microdesmis puberula, chewed
Region : West Africa
Country : Nigeria (Edo State)
Vernacular name : amama, erankpata (Esan)