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Reference : VY 01

Author(s) : Yineger, H., E. Kelbessa, T. Bekele, E. Lulekal
Title : Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants at Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 112, pp. 55 - 70 (2007) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874107000669
Reference VY 01 has information about 73 plants :
Achyranthes aspera L.
Official name : Achyranthes aspera L.
Family : Amaranthaceae
Synonyms : Achyranthes annua Dinter , Achyranthes indica (L.) Mill. , Achyranthes aspera L. var. sicula , Achyranthes obovata Peter.
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), crushed root of Achyranthes aspera is mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Agrocharis melanantha Hochst.
Official name : Agrocharis melanantha Hochst.
Family : Apiaceae
Symptoms : V(099)
Recipes : V(099) epilepsy (wan qabana, elbissa), crushed fresh root is squeezed, juice is taken nasally
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Alchemilla abyssinica Fresen.
Official name : Alchemilla abyssinica Fresen.
Family : Rosaceae
Synonyms : Alchemilla rothii Oliv.
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), swollen site is cut before serving the medicine. Crushed fresh roots of Rumex nepalensis of Alchemilla abyssinica are mixed in H2O, VO + drops in nose
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : hindrif / endrif
Allium sativum L.
Official name : Allium sativum L.
Family : Alliaceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(006), V(037), V(041), V(075), V(126)
Recipes : V(003) badhaftu (external swelling with ultimately burst and discharges of pus), fresh leaves of Artemisis absinthium of Nicotiana tabaccum of Leonotis ocymifolia, bulbs of Allium sativum are crushed and tied over the wound after contacting swollen site to glowing iron
V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), fresh or dried roots of Cyathula polycephala with bulb of Allium sativum are pounder and mixed with cold H2O, nasal administration
V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua), leaves of Zehneria scabra of Olinia rochetiana, roots of Withania somnifera of Allium sativum are boiled with butter, given nasally
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), fresh or dried roots of Cucumis ficifolius and Allium sativum, leaves of Nicotiana tabacum of Discopodium eremanthum are crushed, the result is placed on the cut skin part and the rest is VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), leaves of Erythrina brucei, Vernonia myrantha, Ruta chalepensis of Nicotiana tabacum of Cymbopogon citratus, roots of Salvia merjamie, Cucumis ficifolius of Rumex nepalensis of Allium sativum, fruits of Nigella sativa are crushed and mixed with saltwater, VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), seeds of Nigella sativa with leaves of Allium sativum of Ruta chalepensis are pounded together, mixed with H2O, VO.
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), the crushed fresh bulbs are mixed with salt and H2O, VO
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), crushed leaves of Rosa abyssinica and bulbs of Allium sativum are mixed with salt and H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : qulubi adi
Artemisia absinthium L.
Official name : Artemisia absinthium L.
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(003)
Recipes : V(003) badhaftu (external swelling with ultimately burst and discharges of pus), fresh leaves of Artemisia absinthium of Nicotiana tabaccum of Leonotis ocymifolia, bulb of Allium sativum are crushed and tied over the wound after contacting swollen site to glowing iron
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : enari
Artemisia abyssinica Sch.Bip ex Rich
Official name : Artemisia abyssinica Sch.Bip ex Rich
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(099)
Recipes : V(003) badhaftu (external swelling with ultimately burst and discharges of pus), fresh leaves of Artemisis absinthium of Nicotiana tabaccum of Leonotis ocymifolia, bulbs of Allium sativum are crushed and tied over the wound after contacting swollen site to glowing iron
V(099) epilepsy (wan qabana, elbissa), crushed fresh root, to chew. Juice administred via left nostril
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : chuqune
Asparagus africanus Lam.
Official name : Asparagus africanus Lam.
Family : Asparagaceae
Symptoms : V(070)
Recipes : V(070) rabies (dhukuba sere), fresh or dried leaves of Asparagus africanus are crushed and powdered and mixed with cold H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : seriti
Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm.f.) Bech.
Official name : Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm.f.) Bech.
Family : Aspleniaceae
Symptoms : V(201)
Recipes : V(201) evilspirit (wan laffa), fresh roots of Withania somnifera of Asplenium aethiopicum are crushed, mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Basananthe hanningtoniana (Mast.) W.J. de Wilde
Official name : Basananthe hanningtoniana (Mast.) W.J. de Wilde
Family : Passifloraceae
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), fresh leaves of Basananthe hanningtoniana are boiled in H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Bersama abyssinica Fres.
Official name : Bersama abyssinica Fres.
Family : Melianthaceae
Synonyms : Bersama abyssinica subsp. engleriana (Gürke) F.White
Symptoms : V(014)
Recipes : Véq(014) dermatophytes (ikek hoirse's), leaves of Bersama abyssinica of Calpurnia aurea of Prenanthes subpeltata, fruits of Solanum marginatum are crushed, boiled and painted over the body of the horse
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : lolchisa (abalo)/horoqa
Berula erecta (Hudson) Coville
Official name : Berula erecta (Hudson) Coville
Family : Apiaceae
Symptoms : V(014)
Recipes : Véq(003) nose swelling in mules (chachabsa), fresh leaves of Maesa lanceolata of Berula erecta are crushed and inserted into affected site after cutting the skin
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : gonde
Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth.
Official name : Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth.
Family : Fabaceae
Synonyms : Calpurnia subdecandra (L'Hérit.) Schweick.
Symptoms : V(014)
Recipes : Véq(014) dermatophytes (ikek hoirse's), leaves of Bersama abyssinica of Calpurnia aurea of Prenanthes subpeltata, fruits of Solanum marginatum are crushed, boiled and painted over the body of the horse
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : chekata
Carduus nyassanus (S. Moore) R.E. Fr.
Official name : Carduus nyassanus (S. Moore) R.E. Fr.
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(006), V(008), V(037), V(070), V(075), V(008), V(117), V(126)
Recipes : V(003) + V(008) + V(117) + V(126) gubbaa (swells on neck, gall bladder or liver , cough and severe diarrhoea, shivering, skinny), crushed roots of Carduus nyassanus mixed with H2O, VO.
V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), crushed fresh or dried roots of Silene macrosolen and Carduus nyassanus, VO.
V(008) diarrhoea (albati), fresh crushed roots of Rumex nepalensis of Carduus nyassanus of Cynoglossum coeruleumare mixed with H2O, VO.
V(070) rabies (dhukuba sere), roots of Asparagus africanus of Carduus nyassanus are crushed, mixed with H2O, VO.
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), crushed fresh roots of Silene macrosolen and Carduus nyassanus, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : korehare
Cheilanthes farinosa (Forssk.) Kaulf.
Official name : Cheilanthes farinosa (Forssk.) Kaulf.
Family : Pteridaceae
Symptoms : V(126)
Recipes : V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), powder of crushed leaves of Cheilanthes farinosa of Rhamnus prinoides and the whole plant of Crepis rueppellii, is brushed over the body
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Clematis hirsuta Guill. & Perr.
Official name : Clematis hirsuta Guill. & Perr.
Family : Ranunculaceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(041)
Recipes : Véq(003) nose swelling in mules (chachabsa) , leaves of Phytolacca dodecandra of Clematis hirsuta, roots of Verbascum sinaiticum are crushed and mixed with cold H2O, drops in left nostril
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), dried roots of Clemetis hirsuta of Sida schimperiana are crushed and powdered and mixed with H2O, VO + drops in nose
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), roots of Crepis rueppellii of Clematis hirsuta of Sida chimperiana are crushed, powdered and mixed with H2O, drops in nostrils + VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : fittii
Clutia abyssinica Jaub. & Spach.
Official name : Clutia abyssinica Jaub. & Spach.
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Symptoms : V(008)
Recipes : V(008) diarrhoea (albati), fresh leaves of Clutia abyssinica of Vernonia amygdalina, roots of Ocimum lanifolium are crushed and mixed with cold H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : muka foni
Crassocephalum bojeri (DC.) Robyns
Official name : Crassocephalum bojeri (DC.) Robyns
Family : Asteraceae
Synonyms : Senecio bojeri DC. , Senecio subscandens Hochst. ex A. Rich. , Solanecio angulatus (Vahl) C.Jeffrey
Symptoms : V(126)
Recipes : V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), fresh leaves of Solanecio angulatus pounded, mixed in H2O for brushing it over the skin of the animal
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : raffu, rafu osole
Crepis rueppellii Sch. Bip.
Official name : Crepis rueppellii Sch. Bip.
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(008), V(041), V(126)
Recipes : V(008) diarrhoea (albati), leaves of Vernonia amygdalina of Millettia ferruginea of Gomphocarpus fruticosus, roots of Juniperus procera of Cupressus lusitanica of Crepis rueppellii are powdered and mixed with H2O, VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), roots of Crepis rueppellii of Clematis hirsuta of Sida chimperiana are crushed, powdered and mixed with H2O, drops in nostrils + VO.
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), powder of crushed leaves of Cheilanthes farinosa of Rhamnus prinoides and the whole plant of Crepis rueppellii, is brushed over the body
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : mucharae, kartassa/mucha, rabe
Cucumis ficifolius A. Rich.
Official name : Cucumis ficifolius A. Rich.
Family : Cucurbitaceae
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), leaves of Erythrina brucei, Vernonia myrantha, Ruta chalepensis of Nicotiana tabacum of Cymbopogon citratus, roots of Salvia merjamie, Cucumis ficifolius of Rumex nepalensis of Allium sativum, fruits of Nigella sativa are crushed and mixed with saltwater, VO.
V(041) blackleg, fresh crushed roots of Cucumis ficifolius are mixed with cold H2O, VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), fresh or dried roots of Cucumis ficifolius and Allium sativum, leaves of Nicotiana tabacum of Discopodium eremanthum are crushed, the result is placed on the cut skin part and the rest is VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), roots of Cucumis ficifolius of Sonchus bipontini are crushed , mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : hanchote
Cupressus lusitanica Mill.
Official name : Cupressus lusitanica Mill.
Family : Cupressaceae
Symptoms : V(008)
Recipes : V(008) diarrhoea (albati), leaves of Vernonia amygdalina of Millettia ferruginea of Gomphocarpus fruticosus, roots of Juniperus procera of Cupressus lusitanica of Crepis rueppellii are powdered and mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : hindesa
Cyathula polycephala Baker
Official name : Cyathula polycephala Baker
Family : Amaranthaceae
Symptoms : V(006), V(028), V(037), V(041), V(075), V(145)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), fresh or dried roots of Cyathula polycephala with bulb of Allium sativum are pounder and mixed with cold H2O, nasal administration
V(028), V(145) (gara gelcha), fresh roots of Cyathula polycephala Baker, roots or leaves of Phytolacca dodecandra are crushed and muxed in H2O, VO.
V(041) anthrax (dhibe sanga), fruits of Euphorbia schimperiana, roots of Cyathula polycephala are crushed, mixed with cold H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : hatcho
Cycniopsis humifusa (Forssk.) Engl.
Official name : Cycniopsis humifusa (Forssk.) Engl.
Family : Scrophulariaceae
Symptoms : V(126)
Recipes : V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), root concoction of Cycniopsis humifusa of Vernonia amygdalina are mixed in H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : qorsa alati
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf
Official name : Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf
Family : Poaceae
Symptoms : V(041), V(126)
Recipes : V(037) lung disease (somba), dried roots of Rumex abyssinicus of Cymbopogon citratus of Prenanthes subpeltata, leaves of Gomphocarpus fructicosus are powdered and mixed with H2O, VO
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), leaves of Erythrina brucei, Vernonia myrantha, Ruta chalepensis of Nicotiana tabacum of Cymbopogon citratus, roots of Salvia merjamie, Cucumis ficifolius of Rumex nepalensis of Allium sativum, fruits of Nigella sativa are crushed and mixed with saltwater, VO.
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), crushed fresh roots are mixed with H2O, VO + drops in nostrils. The residue is rubbed over the backbone area
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), fresh roots are mixed with salt and H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : iticho (Or.)., tejisar (Amh)
Cynoglossum coeruleum A.DC.
Official name : Cynoglossum coeruleum A.DC.
Family : Boraginaceae
Symptoms : V(008)
Recipes : V(008) diarrhoea (albati), fresh crushed roots of Rumex nepalensis of Carduus nyassanus of Cynoglossum coeruleumare mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : qarchaba, dingetegna, mathane
Discopodium eremanthum Chiov.
Official name : Discopodium eremanthum Chiov.
Family : Solanaceae
Symptoms : V(014), V(041)
Recipes : V(014) scabies (chixxo), leaves of Discopodium eremanthum of Vernonia amygdalina of Sonchus bipontini are crushed and mixed with H2O for painting over the wound untill healing
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), fresh or dried roots of Cucumis ficifolius and Allium sativum, leaves of Nicotiana tabacum of Discopodium eremanthum are crushed, the result is placed on the cut skin part and the rest is VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : merero
Dryopteris inaequalis (Schlecht.) Kuntze
Official name : Dryopteris inaequalis (Schlecht.) Kuntze
Family : Dryopteridaceae
Symptoms : V(006), V(082)
Recipes : V(006) + V(082) rajjoo (high breathing rate, problem of defecation makes skinny), fresh washed and crushed root of Dryopteris inaequalis is boiled, salted, VO
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : bul'aa/ kumbuta/okotu
Erythrina brucei Schweinf.
Official name : Erythrina brucei Schweinf.
Family : Fabaceae
Symptoms : V(001), V(006), V(037), V(041), V(075)
Recipes : V(001) eye disease (dhukuba ija), fresh or dried leaves are pounded, mixed with few H2O, direct application on eyes
Véq(006) + Véq(037) + Véq(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), crushed fresh leaves of Erythrina brucei are mùixed with cold H2O, VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), leaves of Erythrina brucei, Vernonia myrantha, Ruta chalepensis of Nicotiana tabacum of Cymbopogon citratus, roots of Salvia merjamie, Cucumis ficifolius of Rumex nepalensis of Allium sativum, fruits of Nigella sativa are crushed and mixed with saltwater, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : walena
Euphorbia schimperiana Scheele
Official name : Euphorbia schimperiana Scheele
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) anthrax (dhibe sanga), fruits of Euphorbia schimperiana, roots of Cyathula polycephala are crushed, mixed with cold H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : guri
Ficus palmata Forssk.
Official name : Ficus palmata Forssk.
Family : Moraceae
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), fresh leaves of Ficus palmata of Rhamnus prinoides are crushed and boiled in H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : lugo
Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) W.T. Aiton
Official name : Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) W.T. Aiton
Family : Apocynaceae
Symptoms : V(008), V(037)
Recipes : V(008) diarrhoea (albati), leaves of Vernonia amygdalina of Millettia ferruginea of Gomphocarpus fruticosus, roots of Juniperus procera of Cupressus lusitanica of Crepis rueppellii are powdered and mixed with H2O, VO.
V(037) lung disease (somba), dried roots of Rumex abyssinicus of Gomphocarpus fruticosus are powdered and mixed with H20, VO.
V(037) lung disease (somba), dried roots of Rumex abyssinicus of Cymbopogon citratus of Prenanthes subpeltata, leaves of Gomphocarpus fructicosus are powdered and mixed with H2O, VO
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : anano
Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel.
Official name : Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel.
Family : Rosaceae
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), fresh stem bark of Whithania sommifera of Hagenia abyssinica are crushed, boiled (H2O), VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : hexxo
Haplosciadium abyssinicum Hochst.
Official name : Haplosciadium abyssinicum Hochst.
Family : Apiaceae
Symptoms : V(201)
Recipes : V(201) evilspirit (wan laffa), crushed whole plant of Haplosciadium abyssinicum of Polygala steudneri, VO. Some amount is painted over the body
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Inula confertiflora A. Rich
Official name : Inula confertiflora A. Rich
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(093)
Recipes : V(093) gonde (antipoison again poisoning plant), crushed leaves of Inula confertiflora mixed with salt and H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : haxxawii
Juniperus procera Hochst. ex A. Rich.
Official name : Juniperus procera Hochst. ex A. Rich.
Family : Cupressaceae
Symptoms : V(008)
Recipes : V(008) diarrhoea (albati), leaves of Vernonia amygdalina of Millettia ferruginea of Gomphocarpus fruticosus, roots of Juniperus procera of Cupressus lusitanica of Crepis rueppellii are powdered and mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : hindesa adi
Kalanchoe petitiana A.Rich.
Official name : Kalanchoe petitiana A.Rich.
Family : Crassulaceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(006), V(037), V(075)
Recipes : V(003) swelling (ibach), crushed root of Kalanchoe petitiana is tied over the cut surface until the accumulated fluid is removed out
V(006) abdominal constipation, fresh roots of Kalanchoe petitiana of Verbascum sinaiticum are crushed, mixer in H2O and soup, VO.
V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), fresh roots of Kalanchoe petitiana of Verbascum sinaiticum are mixed with soot and H2O, nasal administration
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : anchura
Kniphofia foliosa Hochst
Official name : Kniphofia foliosa Hochst
Family : Asphodelaceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(008), V(092), V(117), V(126)
Recipes : V(003) + V(008) + V(117) + V(126) gubbaa (swells on neck, gall bladder or liver , cough and severe diarrhoea, shivering, skinny), crushed fresh roots of Lobelia rhynchopetalum of Kniphofia foliosa of Rumex nepalensis are mixed in H2O, VO.
V(092) poisons (hudhaa), crushed roots macerated in H2O, VO
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), crushed fresh or dried leaves of Kniphofia foliosa, infusion, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : lela
Leonotis ocymifolia (Burm.f.) Iwarsson
Official name : Leonotis ocymifolia (Burm.f.) Iwarsson
Family : Lamiaceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(041)
Recipes : V(003) badhaftu (external swelling with ultimately burst and discharges of pus), fresh leaves of Artemisis absinthium of Nicotiana tabaccum of Leonotis ocymifolia, bulbs of Allium sativum are crushed and tied over the wound after contacting swollen site to glowing iron
V(041) anthrax (dhibe sanga), fresh crushed roots are mixed with cold H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : bakolu
Lobelia rhynchopetalum (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Hemsl.
Official name : Lobelia rhynchopetalum (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Hemsl.
Family : Lobeliaceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(008), V(117), V(126)
Recipes : V(003) + V(008) + V(117) + V(126) gubbaa (swells on neck, gall bladder or liver , cough and severe diarrhoea, shivering, skinny), crushed fresh roots of Lobelia rhynchopetalum of Kniphofia foliosa of Rumex nepalensis are mixed in H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : tarura
Lotus corniculatus L.
Official name : Lotus corniculatus L.
Family : Fabaceae
Symptoms : V(126)
Recipes : V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), crushed fresh leaves of Lotus corniculatus are mixed with salt and H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : garasita / loya
Maesa lanceolata Forssk.
Official name : Maesa lanceolata Forssk.
Family : Myrsinaceae
Symptoms : V(003)
Recipes : V(003) nose swelling in mules (chachabsa), fresh leaves of Maesa lanceolata of Berula erecta are crushed and inserted into affected site after cutting the skin
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : abeyi
Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker
Official name : Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker
Family : Fabaceae
Symptoms : V(008)
Recipes : V(008) diarrhoea (albati), leaves of Vernonia amygdalina of Millettia ferruginea of Gomphocarpus fruticosus, roots of Juniperus procera of Cupressus lusitanica of Crepis rueppellii are powdered and mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : birbira
Nicotiana rustica L.
Official name : Nicotiana rustica L.
Family : Solanaceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(041)
Recipes : V(003) badhaftu (external swelling with ultimately burst and discharges of pus), fresh leaves of Artemisis absinthium of Nicotiana tabaccum of Leonotis ocymifolia, bulbs of Allium sativum are crushed and tied over the wound after contacting swollen site to glowing iron
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), leaves of Erythrina brucei, Vernonia myrantha, Ruta chalepensis of Nicotiana tabacum of Cymbopogon citratus, roots of Salvia merjamie, Cucumis ficifolius of Rumex nepalensis of Allium sativum, fruits of Nigella sativa are crushed and mixed with saltwater, VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), fresh or dried roots of Cucumis ficifolius and Allium sativum, leaves of Nicotiana tabacum of Discopodium eremanthum are crushed, the result is placed on the cut skin part and the rest is VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : tambo (tambaho)
Nigella sativa L.
Official name : Nigella sativa L.
Family : Ranunculaceae
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), leaves of Erythrina brucei, Vernonia myrantha, Ruta chalepensis of Nicotiana tabacum of Cymbopogon citratus, roots of Salvia merjamie, Cucumis ficifolius of Rumex nepalensis of Allium sativum, fruits of Nigella sativa are crushed and mixed with saltwater, VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), seeds of Nigella sativa with leaves of Allium sativum of Ruta chalepensis are pounded together, mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : habsuda guracha
Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth.
Official name : Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth.
Family : Lamiaceae
Symptoms : V(008), V(126)
Recipes : V(008) diarrhoea (albati), fresh leaves of Clutia abyssinica of Vernonia amygdalina, roots of Ocimum lanifolium are crushed and mixed with cold H2O, VO.
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), crushed fresh roots are mixed in H2O, applied nasally and dermally
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), crushed fresh roots are boiled in H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : qorsa alati
Olinia rochetiana A. Juss.
Official name : Olinia rochetiana A. Juss.
Family : Oliniaceae
Synonyms : Olinia volkensii Engl. , Olinia usambarensis Gilg
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), fresh or dried leaves of Olinia rochetiana of Zehneria scabra are boiled in butter and given nasally
V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua), leaves of Zehneria scabra of Olinia rochetiana, roots of Withania somnifera of Allium sativum are boiled with butter, given nasally
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : gunnaa
Phytolacca dodecandra L'Hérit.
Official name : Phytolacca dodecandra L'Hérit.
Family : Phytolaccaceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(028), V(145)
Recipes : Véq(003) nose swelling in mules (chachabsa) , leaves of Phytolacca dodecandra of Clematis hirsuta, roots of Verbascum sinaiticum are crushed and mixed with cold H2O, drops in left nostril
V(028), V(145) (gara gelcha), fresh roots of Cyathula polycephala Baker, roots or leaves of Phytolacca dodecandra are crushed and muxed in H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : handode (Or.), yemehan endod (Amh)
Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims
Official name : Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims
Family : Pittosparaceae
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), dried stems barks of Pittosporum viridiflorum are crushed, powderes, mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : ara
Polygala sphenoptera Fresen.
Official name : Polygala sphenoptera Fresen.
Family : Polygalaceae
Symptoms : V(201)
Recipes : V(201) evilspirit (wan laffa), crushed leaves of Polygala sphenoptera are mixed with cold H2O, VO. Some amount is painted over the body
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Polygala steudneri Chodat
Official name : Polygala steudneri Chodat
Family : Polygalaceae
Symptoms : V(201)
Recipes : V(201) evilspirit (wan laffa), crushed whole plant of Haplosciadium abyssinicum of Polygala steudneri, VO. Some amount is painted over the body
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Prenanthes subpeltata Stebbins
Official name : Prenanthes subpeltata Stebbins
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075), V(014), V(037)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death)
Véq(014) dermatophytes (ikek hoirse's), leaves of Bersama abyssinica of Calpurnia aurea of Prenanthes subpeltata, fruits of Solanum marginatum are crushed, boiled and painted over the body of the horse
V(037) lung disease (somba), dried roots of Rumex abyssinicus of Cymbopogon citratus of Prenanthes subpeltata, leaves of Gomphocarpus fructicosus are powdered and mixed with H2O, VO
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : anano
Rhamnus prinoides L' Hérit.
Official name : Rhamnus prinoides L' Hérit.
Family : Rhamnaceae
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075), V(126)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), fresh leaves of Ficus palmata of Rhamnus prinoides are crushed and boiled in H2O, VO.
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), powder of crushed leaves of Cheilanthes farinosa of Rhamnus prinoides and the whole plant of Crepis rueppellii, is brushed over the body
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : gesho
Rosa abyssinica Lindl.
Official name : Rosa abyssinica Lindl.
Family : Rosaceae
Symptoms : V(126)
Recipes : V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), crushed leaves of Rosa abyssinica and bulbs of Allium sativum are mixed with salt and H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : gora
Rumex abyssinicus Jacq.
Official name : Rumex abyssinicus Jacq.
Family : Polygonaceae
Symptoms : V(037), V(041)
Recipes : V(037) lung disease (somba), dried roots of Rumex abyssinicus of Gomphocarpus fruticosus are powdered and mixed with H20, VO.
V(037) lung disease (somba), dried roots of Rumex abyssinicus of Cymbopogon citratus of Prenanthes subpeltata, leaves of Gomphocarpus fructicosus are powdered and mixed with H2O, VO
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), leaves of Erythrina brucei, Vernonia myrantha, Ruta chalepensis of Nicotiana tabacum of Cymbopogon citratus, roots of Salvia merjamie, Cucumis ficifolius of Rumex nepalensis of Allium sativum, fruits of Nigella sativa are crushed and mixed with saltwater, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : hoficho
Rumex nepalensis Spreng.
Official name : Rumex nepalensis Spreng.
Family : Polygonaceae
Symptoms : V(003), V(008), V(041), V(117), V(126), V(041)
Recipes : V(003) + V(008) + V(117) + V(126) gubbaa (swells on neck, gall bladder or liver , cough and severe diarrhoea, shivering, skinny), crushed fresh roots of Lobelia rhynchopetalum of Kniphofia foliosa of Rumex nepalensis are mixed in H2O, VO.
V(008) diarrhoea (albati), fresh crushed roots of Rumex nepalensis of Carduus nyassanus of Cynoglossum coeruleum are mixed with H2O, VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), fresh crushed roots of Rumex nepalensis, VO. + drops in nose
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), swollen site is cut before serving the medicine. Crushed fresh roots of Rumex nepalensis of Alchemilla abyssinica are mixed in H2O, VO + drops in nose
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : shabbee
Ruta chalepensis L.
Official name : Ruta chalepensis L.
Family : Rutaceae
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), leaves of Erythrina brucei, Vernonia myrantha, Ruta chalepensis of Nicotiana tabacum of Cymbopogon citratus, roots of Salvia merjamie, Cucumis ficifolius of Rumex nepalensis of Allium sativum, fruits of Nigella sativa are crushed and mixed with saltwater, VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), seeds of Nigella sativa with leaves of Allium sativum of Ruta chalepensis are pounded together, mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : siliti
Salvia merjamie Forssk.
Official name : Salvia merjamie Forssk.
Family : Lamiaceae
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), leaves of Erythrina brucei, Vernonia myrantha, Ruta chalepensis of Nicotiana tabacum of Cymbopogon citratus, roots of Salvia merjamie, Cucumis ficifolius of Rumex nepalensis of Allium sativum, fruits of Nigella sativa are crushed and mixed with saltwater, VO.
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), fresh roots of Salvia merjamie taken from 7 points mixed with Allium sativum + salt + H2O, VO
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : okotu / okota
Salvia nilotica Juss. ex Jacq.
Official name : Salvia nilotica Juss. ex Jacq.
Family : Lamiaceae
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), roots and leaves of Salvia nilotica are crushed mixed with H2O and salt, VO. 1l.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : merga, saynequel
Senecio fresenii Sch. Bip.
Official name : Senecio fresenii Sch. Bip.
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), crushed roots of Senecio fresenii are mixed with cold H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Senecio ragazzii Chiov.
Official name : Senecio ragazzii Chiov.
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(201)
Recipes : V(201) evil eye (buda), leaves of Senecio ragazzii, bulbs of Allium sativum are boiled with H2O, VO. The residue is used to wash the body of the animal
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : beredu
Sida schimperiana Hochst. ex A.Rich.
Official name : Sida schimperiana Hochst. ex A.Rich.
Family : Malvaceae
Synonyms : Sida cuneifolia auct.
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), dried roots of Clemetis hirsuta of Sida schimperiana are crushed and powdered and mixed with H2O, VO + drops in nose
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), roots of Crepis rueppellii of Clematis hirsuta of Sida chimperiana are crushed, powdered and mixed with H2O, drops in nostrils + VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : korsa shotelay/haxxamur
Silene macrosolen Steud. ex A.Rich.
Official name : Silene macrosolen Steud. ex A.Rich.
Family : Caryophyllaceae
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075), V(126)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), crushed fresh roots of Silene macrosolen and Carduus nyassanus, VO.
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), crushed fresh roots of Silene macrosolen and Carduus nyassanus, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : wagarti
Solanecio gigas (Vatke) C.Jeffrey
Official name : Solanecio gigas (Vatke) C.Jeffrey
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(126)
Recipes : V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), fresh crushed leaves of Solanecio gigas mixed with H2O, VO.. Some amount is painted over body parts
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Solanum incanum L.
Official name : Solanum incanum L.
Family : Solanaceae
Synonyms : Solanum insanum L. , Solanum coagulans Forssk.
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), crushed leaves of Solanum incanum, mixed with cold H2O, painted over body parts of the animal
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : hiddi xiqo
Solanum marginatum L. f.
Official name : Solanum marginatum L. f.
Family : Solanaceae
Symptoms : V(014)
Recipes : Véq(014) dermatophytes (ikek hoirse's), leaves of Bersama abyssinica of Calpurnia aurea of Prenanthes subpeltata, fruits of Solanum marginatum are crushed, boiled and painted over the body of the horse
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : hiddi
Sonchus bipontini Asch.
Official name : Sonchus bipontini Asch.
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(014), V(041)
Recipes : V(014) scabies (chixxo), leaves of Discopodium eremanthum of Vernonia amygdalina of Sonchus bipontini are crushed and mixed with H2O for painting over the wound untill healing
V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), roots of Cucumis ficifolius of Sonchus bipontini are crushed , mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : raafu simbra, feyisso, kartassa
Trichilia prieuriana A.Juss.
Official name : Trichilia prieuriana A.Juss.
Family : Meliaceae
Symptoms : V(008)
Recipes : V(008) diarrhoea (albati), crushed roots of Trichilia prieuriana of Withania somnifera, VO
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : anonu
Verbascum sinaiticum Benth.
Official name : Verbascum sinaiticum Benth.
Family : Scrophulariaceae
Symptoms : V(000), V(006)
Recipes : Véq(003) enflures du nez des mules (chachabsa) , leaves of Phytolacca dodecandra de Clematis hirsuta, roots of Verbascum sinaiticum are pounded and mixed with cold H2O, drops in the left nostril
Véq(006) + Véq(037) + Véq(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), freshy crushed roots are mixed in cold H2O, VO.
V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua), fresh roots of Kalanchoe petitiana of Verbascum sinaiticum are mixed with soot and H2O, nose administration
V(006) constipation, fresh roots of Kalanchoe petitiana of Verbascum sinaiticum are crushed and mixed in H2O and soup, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : abokena
Vernonia amygdalina Delile
Official name : Vernonia amygdalina Delile
Family : Asteraceae
Synonyms : Vernonia senegalensis A. Chev. , Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch. Bip. Ex Walp.
Symptoms : V(008), V(014), V(126)
Recipes : V(008) diarrhoea (albati), leaves of Vernonia amygdalina of Millettia ferruginea of Gomphocarpus fruticosus, roots of Juniperus procera of Cupressus lusitanica of Crepis rueppellii are powdered and mixed with H2O, VO.
V(008) diarrhoea (albati), fresh leaves of Clutia abyssinica of Vernonia amygdalina, roots of Ocimum lanifolium are crushed and mixed with cold H2O, VO.
V(014) scabies (chixxo), leaves of Discopodium eremanthum of Vernonia amygdalina of Sonchus bipontini are crushed and mixed with H2O for painting over the wound untill healing
V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), root concoction of Cycniopsis humifusa of Vernonia amygdalina are mixed in H2O, VO.
V(126) hepatitis, fresh crushed leaves are boiled with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : ebicha
Vernonia hymenolepis A.Rich.
Official name : Vernonia hymenolepis A.Rich.
Family : Asteraceae
Symptoms : V(126)
Recipes : V(126) hepatitis (dhukuba alati), crushed leaves of Vernonia hymenolepis are boiled in H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : anonu
Vernonia myriantha Hook.f.
Official name : Vernonia myriantha Hook.f.
Family : Asteraceae
Synonyms : Vernonia stipulacea Klatt
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) blackleg (dhukuba gorbe, aba gorba), leaves of Erythrina brucei, Vernonia myrantha, Ruta chalepensis of Nicotiana tabacum of Cymbopogon citratus, roots of Salvia merjamie, Cucumis ficifolius of Rumex nepalensis of Allium sativum, fruits of Nigella sativa are crushed and mixed with saltwater, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : rangii
Veronica gunae Schweinf. ex Skan
Official name : Veronica gunae Schweinf. ex Skan
Family : Plantaginaceae
Symptoms : V(041)
Recipes : V(041) anthrax (dhibe sanga), crushed roots of Veronica gunae are mixed with cold H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : not communicated by the authors
Withania somnifera (L.) Dun.
Official name : Withania somnifera (L.) Dun.
Family : Solanaceae
Synonyms : Physalis somnifera L.
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075), V(201)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), fresh stem bark of Whithania sommifera of Hagenia abyssinica are crushed, boiled (H2O), VO.
V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua), leaves of Zehneria scabra of Olinia rochetiana, roots of Withania somnifera of Allium sativum are boiled with butter, given nasally
V(201) evilspirit (wan laffa), fresh roots of Withania somnifera are crushed and mixed with H2O, VO.
V(201) evilspirit (wan laffa), fresh roots of Withania somnifera of Asplenium aethiopicum are crushed, mixed with H2O, VO.
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : hunzo
Zehneria scabra (L.f.) Sond.
Official name : Zehneria scabra (L.f.) Sond.
Family : Cucurbitaceae
Synonyms : Melothria punctata (Thunb.) Cogn.
Symptoms : V(006), V(037), V(075)
Recipes : V(006) + V(037) + V(075), darissaa (gamoji, zalaqua) (slight cough, shivering, unable to defecate, to eat, constipation, abdominal distension, shivering, fluid discharge through nose, falling of ear. Leads to death), leaves of Zehneria scabra of Olinia rochetiana, roots of Withania somnifera of Allium sativum are boiled with butter, given nasally
Region : East Africa
Country : Ethiopia (Bale Mountains National Park)
Vernacular name : harolla / etse sabek